5 Basics Of Computer Architecture

A person using a laptop computer sitting on top of a sidewalk

A computer is a machine that breaks complicated work into a simpler form. There is a procedure that a computer system follows for performing jobs. For simplifying the complex or sophisticated a series is created. The brain or the CPU conducts most of the tasks. This is also known as the machine cycle, where 5 basic elements of computer architecture are involved. The below-mentioned pointers explain these fundamentals of architecture in a computer system.

  1. Input Unit
A man sitting at a table using a laptop computer

The data reaches the computer system by the touchable tools. They are usually mouse and keyboard, which develops an association between a person and a machine. Once the data arrives, it is sent for conversion because the computer only understands its defined wording. Finally, the system turns it into a computer or machine language of 0 and 1. 

  1. Output Unit
A laptop computer sitting on top of a table

In the first stage, the computer receives the problem. As the name suggests, the output department provides the user with the solution. They also connect the outer environment with the internal one. 

  1. Storage Unit

A storage unit offers two kinds of storage in a computer. The first one is the primary data storage and the other is secondary storage for data. The feature of a storage unit is storing data. This primary storage is also referred to as the central data of the computer.  On the other hand, secondary storage is difficult to achieve for the CPU. The main reason is that it has the fixed data. The data from the storage unit is delivered for calculations.

  1. Arithmetic Logic Unit

After receiving data from the previous unit. The computer starts working on calculations. In case the control unit demands calculations then the storage unit receives a command of transferring the data to the ALU. In the end, all the outcomes are sent back to the storage unit for preservation. There are several calculations that the computer system does. 

  1. Control Unit

The control unit is like the mastermind of the prominent area of the computer system. All the controls are concentrated with this unit. It is just like the nerves in the human body, which are interconnected and send signals. The unit utilizes the storage unit for transmitting information to the Arithmetic Logic Unit. The control unit is the one behind every instruction and impacts the actions of other divisions. 


The computer is a device that converts complicated chores into easier ones. There is a process called machine cycle that makes it possible. The machine cycle further introduces 5 main components. It begins with an output unit that sends further to the output unit. The storage unit has primary and secondary storage. The storage unit is instructed by the control unit to send data to the arithmetic logic unit for calculations. Finally, all the decisions are taken by the control unit.

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